January DIG Meeting Notes

Meeting started at 10:05, 27 People present
10:05 Welcome, Asked if someone is new today
Pam- has done some tests and been successful.
Nancy Mears-From Litchfield, Won some work from Brian Bouchard and is hooked
Robert -Has worked with Nancy on genealogy research project
Lisa-doing genealogy since 2000.  Daughter is doing her DNA
Lorraine did a short financial report-$99 on hand after purchase of videos.
Nancy October 2016 International Genetic Genealogy Conference in San Diego purchased all 19 presentation videos. They will be used in future meetings.
10:10 David Farnham-Cousin Meeting on Ancestry
Shared his experience so you don’t make the same mistakes he did.
The science is rock solid but the way it is interpreted is based statistics and algorithms.  Predictions can be wrong.  It is at best an informed guess.
His wife Sue’s family had “daughtered” out.  She has a cousin “Fred” but before you do a Y test it might make sense to also do an autosomal test first.   Found out that Fred shared NO DNA with Sue or her sister according to that test result.
Decided to get a second opinion-so looked at Gen-Match at the actual results with their tools.  Could not make the transfer to Family Tree DNA because they are not accepting from the NEW Ancestry tests.
Downloaded raw data and then uploaded results to GenMatch.  GedMatch has a fairly small database but lots of cool tools.  They were able to show that they had a common ancestor within 4 generations. (see: http://isogg.org/wiki/Autosomal_DNA_statistics )
82 centimorgans and 4 segments was what was shown when combining the  two sister’s matches with Fred.  Ancestry even has fine print that says “we are going to miss 2% of your third cousins”  ISSOGG has charts that show what the accepted match requirements.
Don’t assume a False Paternity Event if a 3rd cousin doesn’t match-dig deeper.
Nancy reviewed some of the titles of the videos we have access to.
10:30 Member Sharing and Q&A
Three members shared stories.
Meetings?News/Web sites/You Tube
Curtis Intermediate Program
South Portland Monthly group
Research Hints/Resources/Brick Wall Facebook is a good place to connect with specific groups
DNA Detective Autosomal Statistics Chart
https://mainegenealogicaldig.wordpress.com/  is our website and there are resources there
10:45 Break
11:00  Video and discussion
Ancestry Discoveries with 23&Me   Robin Smith Managing Scientist in Products  23 &Me Lecture 104
23 &Me- “Ancestry” only service-DNA results, Ancestry Reports and Raw Data  are the three main reports.  Also shows Neanderthal percentage.  The Medical DNA is an additional service at an additional cost.
Under the hood-
  • Genome-almost the same in all of us.
  • ACTG packaged in 23 chromosomes where  1 is the longest , 22 is the shortest.
  • The sex chromosome is 23 is only two pieces-either XX or XY.
  •  X-Mitachondria, Y is for Men only,
  • Cells have DNA in its nuclues,
  • DNA has 23 chromosomes
  • Mitochondria is floating around.
  • Sperm does not have mitochondria, they only have Y’s offer
Mitosis-1 cell divides into 4 cells and each cell only has 1 copy of the the chromosomes so this is the recombination phase.
Genes are important because they make protein-the protein is the thing that determines what cells do or become
Genotyping vs Sequencing
Genotyping look at specific markers
Sequencing looks at a chunk of DNA and identifies the pieces.
Look at Autosomal, Mitochondrial and sex chromosones
Admixture is something that happens when two populations come together and how that combination recombines over generations
How their ancestry composition works:
It takes specific parts of the genome and compares it to known genomes of specific populations
The bigger the segment the more recent the mixture.  A lot of small segments shows ancient mixing.   see:  Joanna Mountain paper on the DNA of the US and Science Magazine article http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/12/genetic-study-reveals-surprising-ancestry-many-americans 
Haplogroups–  Y and M DNA.  The sex chromosomes do not recombine.
Both are passed on as it is with mutations as the only changes.
Mutations happens, populations split, more mutations, more splits so a migration map is able to be developed.
mtDNA determines the M Haplograph which follows the female line
Y-DNA determines the male/Y Haplogroup which follows the paternal line.  R is the most common in the US
DNA Relatives-You have 64 Great Great Grandparents but 4700 fourth cousins is not unusual.
Identity by Descent segment.  They are looking for opposite homozygots  on the same chromosone because then they are half identical in the middle
3200 mega bases in a genonome
Centimorgans- are  a measurement.  A centimorgan is about equal to a mega base.
Degrees of Cousin-ship.   If you have 64000 cousins at 8 generations they can only identify with certainty about 1400 of them
Privacy Issues:
Unexpected Relatives
3rd party sharing
Basic Sharing
Open Sharing
Anatomy of a match
Identity, Genetic sex, Whether it is a parent, what that match shares, download genetic data.  Chromosome browser is how you look at the raw data
What can you learn? https://www.23andme.com/stories/  on line
The Future:
Research is ongoing.
Engage more customers
Publish new studies and produce new products
Medical and Scientific applications
Crowd-source data
11:50-Meeting ended and we put chairs away
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